AskDefine | Define orient

Dictionary Definition

orient adj : (poetic) eastern; "the orient sun"

Noun

1 the countries of Asia [syn: East]
2 the hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia [syn: eastern hemisphere]

Verb

1 be oriented; "The weather vane points North" [syn: point]
2 determine one's position with reference to another point [syn: orientate] [ant: disorient]
3 cause to point; "Orient the house towards the West"

User Contributed Dictionary

see Orient

English

Etymology

From s'orienter.

Verb

  1. To turn towards or facing the east
  2. To find one's way (usually by means of a compass)

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

to find one's way

Extensive Definition

The "Orient" is a term which simply means the "East". It originated in Western Asia to describe that part of the world. It is now, incorrectly, used in the Western world to describe Eastern Asia.
To describe a person as oriental has been considered somewhat impolite and politically incorrect in the United States (the term Asian is now widely used), but the term Oriental does not carry any such connotations in the UK, where the word Asian commonly refers to people of Indian/Bangladeshi/Pakistani/Sri Lankan descent (these people are called South Asians in the United States).

Derivation

The term "Orient" is derived from the Latin word oriens meaning "east" (lit. "rising" < orior "rise"). The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (< French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (< Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew ("zriha" meaning sunrise) and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refer to Japan.
The opposite term "Occident" is derived from the Latin word occidens meaning "west" (lit. "setting" < "occido" "fall/set"). This term was once used to describe the West (where the sun sets) but is falling into disuse.

Usage of term

In time, the common understanding of 'the Orient' has continually shifted eastwards; as Europe learned of countries farther East, the defined limit of 'the Orient' shifted eastwards, until it reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call 'the Far East'.
Initially, the "Orient" referred primarily to the cultures and countries of what are now considered the Middle East. For example the Three Kings of the Orient in Christianity were not from China, Japan etc. This particularly included regions that used to be known as Persia, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Egypt. As awareness of other Asian countries grew in European consciousness, the term often came to mean South Asia, Southeast Asia or East Asia. By the late 19th century, the term usually referred to China, Japan, Korea and surrounding nations while the British colonists frequently used it when speaking of India. Remnants of the older conception of the Orient still exist in the English language in such collocations as Oriental studies (now largely replaced by Asian studies), Oriental rug and Oriental harem. It has taken on a specific usage since the publication of Edward Said's influential book, "Orientalism" (1980).
"Oriental" has been used by the West as a term to describe cultures, countries, peoples and goods from the Orient. Oriental is also used as an adjective akin to "eastern", especially in the Spanish-speaking world. For example, the Philippine island Mindoro is divided into two provinces whose titles include the words "oriental" and "occidental" respectively. The official name of Uruguay is the República Oriental del Uruguay or Oriental Republic of Uruguay because it is east of the Río de la Plata.

Perceptions and connotations

North American English

Controversy surrounds connotations of the term in American English. (See also American and British English differences.) According to Abdurrahman R. Squires, "politically correct terms have taken the place of the word 'Orientalism'".
While a number of reference works used in the United States describe Oriental as pejorative, antiquated or offensive in some instances, the American Heritage Book of English Usage notes that
''It is worth remembering, though, that Oriental is not an ethnic slur to be avoided in all situations. It is most objectionable in contemporary contexts and when used as a noun, as in "the appointment of an Oriental to head the commission". In these cases Asian (or a more specific term such as Vietnamese, Korean, or Asian American, if appropriate) is the only acceptable term. But in certain historical contexts, or when its exotic connotations are integral to the topic, Oriental remains a useful term.
Random House's Guide to Sensitive Language states "Other words (e.g., Oriental, colored) are outdated or inaccurate." This Guide to Sensitive Language'' suggests the use of "Asian or more specific designation such as Pacific Islander, Chinese American, [or] Korean." Merriam-Webster describes the term as "sometimes offensive," Encarta states when the term is used as a noun it is considered "a highly offensive term for somebody from East Asia"
Efforts are underway in Canada to have the term viewed as offensive.http://www.cbc.ca/canada/toronto/story/2008/03/07/oriental-outdated.html For many, there exists a confusion as to why the term is offensive.http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/407796
The popular American musical Avenue Q includes an explicit reference to the current status of the word in the song "Everyone's a Little Bit Racist." In the musical, the character Brian, after angering his wife by referring to her as Oriental, is admonished "Brian, buddy, where ya been? The term is Asian-American!"http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Avenue_Q

British English

In British English, the terms "Asian" (noun or adjective) and "British Asian" (noun), when used in reference to people, usually refer to South Asian peoples - especially the ethnic groups of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The term "oriental" is used without any pejorative connotations to describe one of East Asian extraction. The alternative is usually to use "Far Eastern", or refer to the specific country from which an individual or family may have originated, if this is known.

Notes

References and further reading

orient in Aragonese: Orient
orient in Bosnian: Orijent
orient in Catalan: Orient
orient in Czech: Orient
orient in Danish: Orienten
orient in German: Orient
orient in Spanish: Oriente
orient in French: Orient
orient in Galician: Oriente
orient in Dutch: Oosten
orient in Japanese: オリエント
orient in Norwegian: Orienten
orient in Norwegian Nynorsk: Orienten
orient in Portuguese: Oriente
orient in Romanian: Oriente
orient in Slovak: Orient
orient in Swedish: Orienten
orient in Chinese: 东洋

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

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